Clinical and Dietary Determinants of Muscle Mass in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Data from the Diabetes and Lifestyle Cohort Twente

Annis C. Jalving*, Milou M. Oosterwijk, Ilse J. M. Hagedoorn, Gerjan Navis, Stephan J. L. Bakker, Gozewijn D. Laverman

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Low muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with a progressively higher risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable targets for intervention of muscle mass in type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 375 patients of the Diabetes and Lifestyle Cohort Twente-1 study. Muscle mass was estimated by 24 h urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER, mmol/24 h). Patients were divided in sex-stratified tertiles of CER. To study determinants of CER, multivariable linear regression analyses were performed. Protein intake was determined by Maroni formula and by a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The mean CER was 16.1 ± 4.8 mmol/24 h and 10.9 ± 2.9 mmol/24 h in men and women, respectively. Lower CER was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001) as a non-modifiable risk factor, whereas higher BMI (p = 0.015) and lower dietary protein intake (both methods p < 0.001) were identified as modifiable risk factors for lower CER. Overall body mass index (BMI) was high, even in the lowest CER tertile the mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m2, mainly driven by someone’s body weight (p = 0.004) instead of someone’s height (p = 0.58). In the total population, 28% did not achieve adequate protein intake of >0.8 g/kg/day, with the highest percentage in the lowest CER tertile (52%, p < 0.001). Among patients with type 2 diabetes treated in secondary care, higher BMI and low dietary protein intake are modifiable risk factors for lower muscle mass. Considering the risk associated with low muscle mass, intervention may be useful. To that purpose, dietary protein intake and BMI are potential targets for intervention
Original languageEnglish
Article number5227
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume10
Issue number22
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2021

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