Background & Aims: Chronic gastrointestinal ischemia or chronic splanchnic syndrome is a difficult diagnosis. The use of a physiologic test, combined with clinical and anatomic data, should improve diagnostic accuracy. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of gastric tonometry during exercise (GET) in a patient cohort suspected of chronic splanchnic syndrome. Methods: From 1997 to 2000, 102 patients with chronic abdominal pain were analyzed. The workup included GET and selective biplane angiography. The diagnosis of gastrointestinal ischemia was based on consensus in a multidisciplinary working group and sustained on follow-up. Results: Gastrointestinal ischemia was diagnosed in 38 patients. In 33 patients chronic splanchnic syndrome was found, with single vessel involvement in 20 (17 celiac artery, 3 mesenteric superior) and multivessel disease in 13. In 5 patients nonocclusive ischemia was found. By using receiver operator curve analysis, the difference between gastric and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2 gradient) proved to be the best GET parameter. The criteria for diagnosing ischemia in GET were Pco2 gradient >0.8 kPa and increase gastric Pco2, with base excess decrease <8 mmol/L during exercise. GET had 78% sensitivity and 92% specificity. Twenty-five patients underwent vascular treatment (19 operative, 6 stent/percutaneous transluminal angioplasty). After 4 years of follow-up 83% of patients were alive and free of symptoms. Conclusions: GET is an accurate diagnostic tool to show gastrointestinal ischemia. Including GET into clinical decision making enabled selecting patients with ischemia, who benefited from vascular and medical treatment. These benefits were sustained during 4-year follow-up. GET should be considered in the workup of patients with a suspected diagnosis, of gastrointestinal ischemia.