Clinical implications of increased uptake in bone marrow and spleen on FDG-PET in patients with bacteremia

Jordy P. Pijl*, Thomas C. Kwee, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Derya Yakar, Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Andor W.J.M. Glaudemans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate which clinical factors and laboratory values are associated with high FDG uptake in the bone marrow and spleen on 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with bacteremia. Methods: One hundred forty-five consecutive retrospective patients with bacteremia who underwent FDG-PET/CT between 2010 and 2017 were included. Mean standard uptake values (SUVmean) of FDG in bone marrow, liver, and spleen were measured. Bone marrow-to-liver SUV ratios (BLR) and spleen-to-liver SUV ratios (SLR) were calculated. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine the association of BLR and SLR with age, gender, hemoglobin, leukocyte count, platelets, glucose level, C-reactive protein (CRP), microorganism, days of antibiotic treatment before FDG-PET/CT, infection focus, use of immunosuppressive drugs, duration of hospital stay (after FDG-PET/CT), ICU admission, and mortality. Results: C-reactive protein (p = 0.006), a cardiovascular or musculoskeletal focus of infection (p = 0.000 for both), and bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria (p = 0.002) were independently and positively associated with BLR, while age (p = 0.000) and glucose level before FDG-PET/CT (p = 0.004) were independently and negatively associated with BLR. For SLR, CRP (p = 0.001) and a cardiovascular focus of infection (p = 0.020) were independently and positively associated with SLR, while age (p = 0.002) and glucose level before FDG-PET/CT (p = 0.016) were independently and negatively associated with SLR. Conclusion: High FDG uptake in the bone marrow is associated with a higher inflammatory response and younger age in patients with bacteremia. In patients with high FDG uptake in the bone marrow, a cardiovascular or musculoskeletal focus of infection is more likely than other foci, and the infection is more often caused by Gram-negative species. High splenic FDG uptake is associated with a higher inflammatory response as well, and a cardiovascular focus of infection is also more likely in case of high splenic FDG uptake.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print/First online - 26 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Bacteremia
  • Bone marrow
  • FDG
  • Sepsis
  • Spleen
  • Uptake

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