Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation

Y. Tao, Rob Hagmeijer, Bert Bastiaens, S.J. Goh, P.J.M. van der Slot, S.G. Biedron, S. Milton, Klaus J. Boller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Summary form only given. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters (instead of separate gas atoms) is of high promise due to expanded options for quasi-phase matching and because clusters appeared to offer an increased optical nonlinearity [1]. To verify the latter, we investigate HHG from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify a possible dependence of HHG on the average cluster size, we change the total atomic number density in the j et over a broad range (from 3 × 1016 cm-3 to 3 × 1018 cm-3) which maximize the variation in cluster size. For disentangling the contribution to HHG from clusters and gas monomers, we perform experiments at two different reservoir temperatures (303 K and 363 K), in order to vary the liquid mass fraction, g, for the same range of cluster sizes (see variation of g in Fig. 1). We note that this is actually the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements that the dependence of, g, vs. pressure and temperature is taken properly into consideration, and we determine g, reliably and consistently, to lie below 20% in the parameter range in Fig. 1. Based on measurements with a thin jet where significant variations in reabsorption and the phase-matching conditions can be neglected, we conclude that atoms in the form of small clusters (average cluster size <; 1000 atoms) provide the same higher-order nonlinear response as single-atoms [2]. This implies that HHG in small clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighbouring ions in the cluster. This conclusion is consistent with the measured harmonic spectra showing no obvious changes of the cut-off wavelength. Our results are in clear contrast to previous work [1] concluding that the single-atom response in small clusters (average cluster size <; 700 atoms) increases with the cluster size, thereby promising a higher output than with monomers. Cluster may still increase the yield of high-order harmonic generation, however, not via the single-atom response but possibly via quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on)
PublisherIEEE
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5090-6736-7
ISBN (Print) 978-1-5090-6737-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Oct 2017
EventEuropean Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference 2017 - ICM Centre of the New Munich Trade Fair Centre, Munich, Germany
Duration: 25 Jun 201729 Jun 2017

Conference

ConferenceEuropean Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference 2017
Abbreviated titleCLEO/Europe-EQEC 2017
CountryGermany
CityMunich
Period25/06/1729/06/17

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harmonic generations
atoms
phase matching
monomers
harmonics
gas jets
gases
rare gases
ions
cut-off
nonlinearity

Cite this

Tao, Y., Hagmeijer, R., Bastiaens, B., Goh, S. J., van der Slot, P. J. M., Biedron, S. G., ... Boller, K. J. (2017). Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation. In Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on) IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2017.8086830
Tao, Y. ; Hagmeijer, Rob ; Bastiaens, Bert ; Goh, S.J. ; van der Slot, P.J.M. ; Biedron, S.G. ; Milton, S. ; Boller, Klaus J. / Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation. Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on) . IEEE, 2017.
@inproceedings{fd1517eb80b34393853118c9786fc544,
title = "Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation",
abstract = "Summary form only given. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters (instead of separate gas atoms) is of high promise due to expanded options for quasi-phase matching and because clusters appeared to offer an increased optical nonlinearity [1]. To verify the latter, we investigate HHG from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify a possible dependence of HHG on the average cluster size, we change the total atomic number density in the j et over a broad range (from 3 × 1016 cm-3 to 3 × 1018 cm-3) which maximize the variation in cluster size. For disentangling the contribution to HHG from clusters and gas monomers, we perform experiments at two different reservoir temperatures (303 K and 363 K), in order to vary the liquid mass fraction, g, for the same range of cluster sizes (see variation of g in Fig. 1). We note that this is actually the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements that the dependence of, g, vs. pressure and temperature is taken properly into consideration, and we determine g, reliably and consistently, to lie below 20{\%} in the parameter range in Fig. 1. Based on measurements with a thin jet where significant variations in reabsorption and the phase-matching conditions can be neglected, we conclude that atoms in the form of small clusters (average cluster size <; 1000 atoms) provide the same higher-order nonlinear response as single-atoms [2]. This implies that HHG in small clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighbouring ions in the cluster. This conclusion is consistent with the measured harmonic spectra showing no obvious changes of the cut-off wavelength. Our results are in clear contrast to previous work [1] concluding that the single-atom response in small clusters (average cluster size <; 700 atoms) increases with the cluster size, thereby promising a higher output than with monomers. Cluster may still increase the yield of high-order harmonic generation, however, not via the single-atom response but possibly via quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.",
author = "Y. Tao and Rob Hagmeijer and Bert Bastiaens and S.J. Goh and {van der Slot}, P.J.M. and S.G. Biedron and S. Milton and Boller, {Klaus J.}",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
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language = "English",
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booktitle = "Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on)",
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}

Tao, Y, Hagmeijer, R, Bastiaens, B, Goh, SJ, van der Slot, PJM, Biedron, SG, Milton, S & Boller, KJ 2017, Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation. in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on) . IEEE, European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and the European Quantum Electronics Conference 2017, Munich, Germany, 25/06/17. https://doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2017.8086830

Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation. / Tao, Y.; Hagmeijer, Rob ; Bastiaens, Bert; Goh, S.J.; van der Slot, P.J.M.; Biedron, S.G.; Milton, S.; Boller, Klaus J.

Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on) . IEEE, 2017.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

TY - GEN

T1 - Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation

AU - Tao, Y.

AU - Hagmeijer, Rob

AU - Bastiaens, Bert

AU - Goh, S.J.

AU - van der Slot, P.J.M.

AU - Biedron, S.G.

AU - Milton, S.

AU - Boller, Klaus J.

PY - 2017/10/30

Y1 - 2017/10/30

N2 - Summary form only given. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters (instead of separate gas atoms) is of high promise due to expanded options for quasi-phase matching and because clusters appeared to offer an increased optical nonlinearity [1]. To verify the latter, we investigate HHG from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify a possible dependence of HHG on the average cluster size, we change the total atomic number density in the j et over a broad range (from 3 × 1016 cm-3 to 3 × 1018 cm-3) which maximize the variation in cluster size. For disentangling the contribution to HHG from clusters and gas monomers, we perform experiments at two different reservoir temperatures (303 K and 363 K), in order to vary the liquid mass fraction, g, for the same range of cluster sizes (see variation of g in Fig. 1). We note that this is actually the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements that the dependence of, g, vs. pressure and temperature is taken properly into consideration, and we determine g, reliably and consistently, to lie below 20% in the parameter range in Fig. 1. Based on measurements with a thin jet where significant variations in reabsorption and the phase-matching conditions can be neglected, we conclude that atoms in the form of small clusters (average cluster size <; 1000 atoms) provide the same higher-order nonlinear response as single-atoms [2]. This implies that HHG in small clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighbouring ions in the cluster. This conclusion is consistent with the measured harmonic spectra showing no obvious changes of the cut-off wavelength. Our results are in clear contrast to previous work [1] concluding that the single-atom response in small clusters (average cluster size <; 700 atoms) increases with the cluster size, thereby promising a higher output than with monomers. Cluster may still increase the yield of high-order harmonic generation, however, not via the single-atom response but possibly via quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.

AB - Summary form only given. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters (instead of separate gas atoms) is of high promise due to expanded options for quasi-phase matching and because clusters appeared to offer an increased optical nonlinearity [1]. To verify the latter, we investigate HHG from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify a possible dependence of HHG on the average cluster size, we change the total atomic number density in the j et over a broad range (from 3 × 1016 cm-3 to 3 × 1018 cm-3) which maximize the variation in cluster size. For disentangling the contribution to HHG from clusters and gas monomers, we perform experiments at two different reservoir temperatures (303 K and 363 K), in order to vary the liquid mass fraction, g, for the same range of cluster sizes (see variation of g in Fig. 1). We note that this is actually the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements that the dependence of, g, vs. pressure and temperature is taken properly into consideration, and we determine g, reliably and consistently, to lie below 20% in the parameter range in Fig. 1. Based on measurements with a thin jet where significant variations in reabsorption and the phase-matching conditions can be neglected, we conclude that atoms in the form of small clusters (average cluster size <; 1000 atoms) provide the same higher-order nonlinear response as single-atoms [2]. This implies that HHG in small clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighbouring ions in the cluster. This conclusion is consistent with the measured harmonic spectra showing no obvious changes of the cut-off wavelength. Our results are in clear contrast to previous work [1] concluding that the single-atom response in small clusters (average cluster size <; 700 atoms) increases with the cluster size, thereby promising a higher output than with monomers. Cluster may still increase the yield of high-order harmonic generation, however, not via the single-atom response but possibly via quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.

U2 - 10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2017.8086830

DO - 10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2017.8086830

M3 - Conference contribution

SN - 978-1-5090-6737-4

BT - Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on)

PB - IEEE

ER -

Tao Y, Hagmeijer R, Bastiaens B, Goh SJ, van der Slot PJM, Biedron SG et al. Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation. In Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC, 2017 Conference on) . IEEE. 2017 https://doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2017.8086830