Clusters in the expanse: Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists

Oliver Gasser, Qasim Lone, Quirin Scheitle, Maciej Korczyński, Pawel Foremski, Stephen D. Strowes, Luuk Hendriks, Georg Carle

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Network measurements are an important tool in understanding the Internet. Due to the expanse of the IPv6 address space, exhaustive scans as in IPv4 are not possible for IPv6. In recent years, several studies have proposed the use of target lists of IPv6 addresses, called IPv6 hitlists. In this paper, we show that addresses in IPv6 hitlists are heavily clustered. We present novel techniques that allow IPv6 hitlists to be pushed from quantity to quality. We perform a longitudinal active measurement study over 6 months, targeting more than 50 M addresses. We develop a rigorous method to detect aliased prefixes, which identifies 1.5 % of our prefixes as aliased, pertaining to about half of our target addresses. Using entropy clustering, we group the entire hitlist into just 6 distinct addressing schemes. Furthermore, we perform client measurements by leveraging crowdsourcing. To encourage reproducibility in network measurement research and to serve as a starting point for future IPv6 studies, we publish source code, analysis tools, and data.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Pages364-378
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781450356190
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2018
Event18th ACM Internet Measurement Conference 2018 - Northeastern University, Boston, United States
Duration: 31 Oct 20182 Nov 2018
Conference number: 18
https://conferences.sigcomm.org/imc/2018/

Conference

Conference18th ACM Internet Measurement Conference 2018
Abbreviated titleACM IMC 2018
CountryUnited States
CityBoston
Period31/10/182/11/18
Internet address

Fingerprint

Entropy
Internet

Keywords

  • Aliasing
  • Clustering
  • Entropy
  • Hitlist
  • IPv6

Cite this

Gasser, O., Lone, Q., Scheitle, Q., Korczyński, M., Foremski, P., Strowes, S. D., ... Carle, G. (2018). Clusters in the expanse: Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists. In IMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference (pp. 364-378). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). https://doi.org/10.1145/3278532.3278564
Gasser, Oliver ; Lone, Qasim ; Scheitle, Quirin ; Korczyński, Maciej ; Foremski, Pawel ; Strowes, Stephen D. ; Hendriks, Luuk ; Carle, Georg. / Clusters in the expanse : Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists. IMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018. pp. 364-378
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abstract = "Network measurements are an important tool in understanding the Internet. Due to the expanse of the IPv6 address space, exhaustive scans as in IPv4 are not possible for IPv6. In recent years, several studies have proposed the use of target lists of IPv6 addresses, called IPv6 hitlists. In this paper, we show that addresses in IPv6 hitlists are heavily clustered. We present novel techniques that allow IPv6 hitlists to be pushed from quantity to quality. We perform a longitudinal active measurement study over 6 months, targeting more than 50 M addresses. We develop a rigorous method to detect aliased prefixes, which identifies 1.5 {\%} of our prefixes as aliased, pertaining to about half of our target addresses. Using entropy clustering, we group the entire hitlist into just 6 distinct addressing schemes. Furthermore, we perform client measurements by leveraging crowdsourcing. To encourage reproducibility in network measurement research and to serve as a starting point for future IPv6 studies, we publish source code, analysis tools, and data.",
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Gasser, O, Lone, Q, Scheitle, Q, Korczyński, M, Foremski, P, Strowes, SD, Hendriks, L & Carle, G 2018, Clusters in the expanse: Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists. in IMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), pp. 364-378, 18th ACM Internet Measurement Conference 2018, Boston, United States, 31/10/18. https://doi.org/10.1145/3278532.3278564

Clusters in the expanse : Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists. / Gasser, Oliver; Lone, Qasim; Scheitle, Quirin; Korczyński, Maciej; Foremski, Pawel; Strowes, Stephen D.; Hendriks, Luuk; Carle, Georg.

IMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018. p. 364-378.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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Gasser O, Lone Q, Scheitle Q, Korczyński M, Foremski P, Strowes SD et al. Clusters in the expanse: Understanding and unbiasing IPv6 Hitlists. In IMC 2018 - Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). 2018. p. 364-378 https://doi.org/10.1145/3278532.3278564