Co-production of Climate Services: A diversity of approaches and good practice from the ERA4CS projects (2017–2021)

Maria Máñez Costa*, Amy Oen, Tina Nesset, Louis Celliers, Mirko Suhari, Jo-Ting Huang-Lachmann, Rafael Pimentel, Berill Blair, Jelmer Jeuring, Ernesto Rodriguez-Camino, Christiana Photiadou, Yairen Jerez Columbié, Nicu Constantin Tudose, Sorin Cheval, Athanasios Votsis, Jennifer Joy West, Kaylin Lee, Len Shaffrey, Cornelia Auer, Holger HoffInka Menge, Peter Walton, Susanne Schuck-Zöller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book/ReportReportAcademic

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This guide presents a joint effort of projects funded under the European Research Area for Climate Services (ERA4CS) (, a co-funded action initiated by JPI Climate with co-funding by the European Union (Grant 690462), 15 national public Research Funding Organisations (RFOs), and 30 Research Performing Organisations (RPOs) from 18 European countries. This guide sets out to increase the understanding of different pathways, methods, and approaches to improve knowledge co-production of climate services with users as a value-added activity of the ERA4CS Programme.

Reflecting on the experiences of 16 of the 26 projects funded under ERA4CS, this guide aims to define and recommend good practices for transdisciplinary knowledge co-production of climate services to researchers, users, funding agencies, and private sector service providers. Drawing on responses from ERA4CS project teams to a questionnaire and interviews, this guide maps the diversity of methods for stakeholder identification, involvement, and engagement. It also conducts an analysis of methods, tools, and mechanisms for engagement as well as evaluation of co-production processes.

This guide presents and discusses good practice examples based on the review of the ERA4CS projects, identifying enablers and barriers for key elements in climate service co-production processes. These were: namely (i) Forms of Engagement; (ii) Entry Points for Engagement; and, (iii) Intensity of Involvement. It further outlines key ingredients to enhance the quality of co-producing climate services with users and stakeholders.

Based on the analysis of the lessons learned from ERA4CS projects, as well as a review of key concepts in the recent literature on climate service co-production, we provide a set of recommendations for researchers, users, funders and private sector providers of climate services.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherLinkoping University Electronic Press
Number of pages57
ISBN (Electronic)978-91-7929-199-0
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022

Publication series

NameCSPR Report Series (Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research)
ISSN (Print)1654-1529


  • climate change
  • climate services
  • co-production


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