In many geo-spatial applications, freehand sketch maps are considered as an intuitive way to collect user-generated spatial information. The task of automatically mapping information from such hand-drawn sketch maps to geo-referenced maps is known as the alignment task. Researchers have proposed various qualitative representations to capture distorted and generalized spatial information in sketch maps. However, thus far the effectiveness of these representations has not been evaluated in the context of an alignment task. This paper empirically evaluates a set of cognitively plausible representations for alignment using real sketch maps collected from two different study areas with the corresponding geo-referenced maps. Firstly, the representations are evaluated in a single-aspect alignment approach by demonstrating the alignment of maps for each individual sketch aspect. Secondly, representations are evaluated across multiple sketch aspects using more than one representation in the alignment task. The evaluations demonstrated the suitability of the chosen representation for aligning user-generated content with geo-referenced maps in a real-world scenario.
- Qualitative alignment
- Qualitative constraint networks
- Qualitative representation
- Sketch map