Endovascular interventions usually require meticulous handling of surgical instruments and constant monitoring of the operating room workspace. To address these challenges, robotic- assisted technologies and tracking techniques are increasingly being developed. Specifically, the limited workspace and potential for a collision between the robot and surrounding dynamic obstacles are important aspects that need to be considered. This article presents a navigation system developed to assist clinicians with the magnetic actuation of endovascular catheters using multiple surgical robots. We demonstrate the actuation of a magnetic catheter in an experimental arterial testbed with dynamic obstacles. The motions and trajectory planning of two six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) robotic arms are established through passive markerguided motion planning. We achieve an overall 3D tracking accuracy of 2.3 ± 0.6 mm for experiments involving dynamic obstacles. We conclude that integrating multiple optical trackers with the online planning of two serial-link manipulators is useful to support the treatment of endovascular diseases and aid clinicians during interventions.
- Robot kinematics