Improvement of synthetic bone graft substitutes as suitable alternatives to a patient's own bone graft remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Our goal was to answer the question of whether improved osteoinductivity of a material would also translate to better bone-healing orthotopically. Three porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics (BCPA, BCPB, and BCPC), consisting of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, a porous biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic reinforced with a bioresorbable polylactic acid to improve its mechanical properties (BCPC+), a pure hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), and a carbonated apatite ceramic (CA) were implanted intramuscularly and orthotopically by using a transverse process model in 11 goats for 12 weeks. BCPA and BCPB had similar chemical composition but differed in their microstructure. BCPB was not osteoinductive at all, but BCPA induced ectopic bone formation in 9 of 11 animals. Orthotopically, BCPA performed better than BCPB in both the amount and rate of bone formation. BCPC, similar to BCPA structurally and physicochemically, showed comparable results ectopically and orthotopically. Addition of resorbable polymer to BCPC made the material less osteoinductive (4 of 11 animals) and delayed bone formation orthotopically. Neither HA nor CA were osteoinductive, and their orthotopic performance was inferior to the osteoinductive ceramics. The results of the present study showed that material-derived osteoinduction significantly enhanced bone healing orthotopically, and that this material property appeared more sensitive for predicting orthotopic performance than physicochemical and structural characteristics.
- In vivo
- Calcium phosphate ceramics