Comparison of lasers used in stapedotomy using specialized visualization techniques for mechanical and thermal effects in an inner ear model

Digna M.A. Kamalski, Rudolf M. Verdaasdonk, Tjeerd De Boorder, Wilko Grolman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

33 Downloads (Pure)


The outcome of stapedotomy depends on several surgical steps. Using laser light, the ossicular chain can be handled and the oval window can be punctured with a non-touch method. Various lasers are being used or considered, however, it is not clear which settings and characteristics will contribute to optimal or adverse effects (vestibule damage and loss hearing frequencies). Using a unique high speed thermal imaging setup based on Schlieren techniques, the mechanical and thermal effects during laser stapedotomy were studied in an inner ear model consisting of human, fresh frozen stapes positioned on a liquid filled cavity in a gel cast. The cw KTP (532 nm), cw CO2 (10.6 μm), cw Thulium (2.0 μm), pulsed Er,Cr;YSGG (2.78 μm) coupled to special fiber delivery systems were applied at typical clinical settings for comparison. The imaging techniques provided a good insight in the extent of heat conduction beneath the footplate and (explosive) vapour formation on both sides. For the pulsed laser modes, explosive vapour expansion can to be controlled with optimized pulse energies while for continuous wave lasers the thermal effects can be controlled with the pulse length and repetition rate. The fluence at the tip of the delivery system and the distance to the footplate has a major impact on the ablation effect. The pulsed IR lasers with fiber delivery show to be promising for a controlled stapedotomy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VII
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes
EventPhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VII 2011 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 22 Jan 201124 Jan 2011
Conference number: 7


ConferencePhotonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VII 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • CO laser
  • Er,Cr:YSGG laser
  • High Speed Imaging
  • KTP laser
  • Stapedotomy
  • thermal imaging
  • Thulium laser


Dive into the research topics of 'Comparison of lasers used in stapedotomy using specialized visualization techniques for mechanical and thermal effects in an inner ear model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this