Compatibilization of Silica-filled Natural Rubber Compounds by Combined Effects of Functionalized Low Molecular Weight Rubber and Silane

P. Saramolee, Kannika Sahakaro, N. Lopattananon, Wilma K. Dierkes, Jacobus W.M. Noordermeer

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Epoxidized low molecular weight natural rubber (ELMWNR) with 28 mol% epoxide groups and weight average molecular weight of 49,000 g mol−1 was prepared by oxidative degradation of epoxidized natural rubber (NR) using periodic acid in the latex state. ELMWNR-28 was used at 10 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr) loading in combination with bis-(triethoxysilylpropyl) tetrasulfide (TESPT) as the silane coupling agent in the range of 0–4.5 phr in silica-reinforced NR compounds. The use of TESPT in combination with ELMWNR-28 gives lower mixing torques and compound viscosities compared with the use of TESPT alone and the system without any compatibilizer. The bound rubber content, modulus, and tensile strength of the compounds with only TESPT strongly depend on the TESPT loading. The use of ELMWNR-28 as a compatibilizer clearly improves such properties compared with the non-compatibilized systems. By adding TESPT into the compound with ELMWNR-28, the properties further improve with increasing TESPT loading. The combined effect of ELMWNR-28 at 10 phr with a small amount of TESPT at 1.5 phr results in compounds with superior processability (i.e. low Mooney viscosity and Payne effect), and only slightly lower modulus and reinforcement index (M300/M100) compared with the use of the optimum content of TESPT. This compatibilizer/TESPT combination has the environmental benefits that the ELMWNR is a naturally based product, and that the reduced amount of TESPT silane coupling agent emits a greatly reduced amount of ethanol during processing
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-163
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of elastomers and plastics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2016


  • METIS-308981
  • IR-94049
  • 2023 OA procedure


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