Complete resource pooling of a load-balancing policy for a network of battery swapping stations

Fiona Sloothaak*, James Cruise, Seva Shneer, Maria Vlasiou, Bert Zwart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


To reduce carbon emission in the transportation sector, there is currently a steady move taking place to an electrified transportation system. This brings about various issues for which a promising solution involves the construction and operation of a battery swapping infrastructure rather than in-vehicle charging of batteries. In this paper, we study a closed Markovian queueing network that allows for spare batteries under a dynamic arrival policy. We propose a provisioning rule for the capacity levels and show that these lead to near-optimal resource utilization, while guaranteeing good quality-of-service levels for electric vehicle users. Key in the derivations is to prove a state-space collapse result, which in turn implies that performance levels are as good as if there would have been a single station with an aggregated number of resources, thus achieving complete resource pooling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-120
Number of pages56
JournalQueueing systems
Issue number1-2
Early online date1 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • Battery swapping
  • Energy
  • Markov process
  • Stochastic model applications


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