Composite PLDLLA/TCP Scaffolds for Bone Engineering: Mechanical and In Vitro Evaluations

C.X.F. Lam, R. Olkowski, W. Swieszkowski, K.C. Tan, I. Gibson, D.W. Hutmacher

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Bone tissue engineering scaffolds have two challenging functional tasks to play; to be bioactive by encouraging cell proliferation and differentiation, and to provide suitable mechanical stability upon implantation. Composites of biopolymers and bioceramics unite the advantages of both materials resulting in better processibility, enhanced mechanical properties through matrix reinforcement and osteoinductivity. Novel composite blends of poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide)/tricalcium phosphate (PLDLLA/TCP) were fabricated into scaffolds by an extrusion deposition technique customised from standard rapid prototyping technology. PLDLLA/TCP composite material blends of various compositions were prepared and analysed for their mechanical properties. PLDLLA/TCP (10%) was optimised and fabricated into scaffolds. Compressive mechanical properties for the composite scaffolds were performed. In vitro studies were conducted using porcine bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Cell-scaffold constructs were induced using osteogenic induction factors for up to 8 weeks. Cell proliferation, viability and differentiation capabilities were assayed using phase contrast light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, PicoGreen DNA quantification, AlamarBlue metabolic assay; FDA/PI fluorescent assay and western blot analysis for osteopontin. Microscopy observations showed BMSCs possessed high proliferative capabilities and demonstrated bridging across the pores of the scaffolds. FDA/PI staining as well as AlamarBlue assay showed high viability of BMSCs cultured on the composite scaffolds Cell numbers, based on DNA quantitation, was observed to increase continuously up to the 8th week of study. Western blot analysis showed increased osteopontin synthesis on the scaffolds compared to tissue culture plastic. Based on our results the PLDLLA/TCP scaffolds exhibit good potential and biocompatibility for bone tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering
Subtitle of host publicationICBME 2008, 3–6 December 2008, Singapore
EditorsChwee Teck Lim, James C.H. Goh
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-540-92841-6
ISBN (Print)978-3-540-92840-9
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes
Event13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2008 - , Singapore
Duration: 3 Dec 20086 Dec 2008
Conference number: 13

Publication series

NameIFMBE Proceedings
ISSN (Print)1680-0737


Conference13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, ICBME 2008
Abbreviated titleICBME 2008


  • Bioresorbable scaffolds
  • Bone
  • Composite
  • Tissue engineering

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