Despite a growing effort to implement computational thinking (CT) skills in primary schools, little research is reported about what CT skills to teach at what age. Therefore, the research questions that guide this study read: (1) How is age related to students' success in computational thinking tasks? (2) How are computational thinking tasks perceived by students? (3) How do students' experience learning with respect to computational thinking? 200 primary school students between the age of 6 and 12 participated in this study. These students got introduced to two CT subjects: abstraction and decomposition. We found that age seems to be related with these concepts, with an interaction effect for gender in the abstraction task. No differences found between young and older students in the constructs perceived difficulty, cognitive load, and flow indicate that young primary school students can engage in learning these CT skills.
Rijke, W. J., Bollen, L., Eysink, T. H. S., & Tolboom, J. L. J. (2018). Computational thinking in primary school: An examination of abstraction and decomposition in different age groups. Informatics in education, 17(1), 77-92. https://doi.org/10.15388/infedu.2018.05