Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems

M.R. Jongerden, Alexandru Mereacre, H.C. Bohnenkamp, Boudewijn R.H.M. Haverkort, Joost P. Katoen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    29 Citations (Scopus)
    97 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery properties of the batteries helps to extend the overall systems lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round-robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. In this paper, we compare these scheduling schemes with the optimal scheduling scheme produced with two different modeling approaches: an approach based on a priced-timed automaton model (implemented and evaluated in Uppaal Cora), as well as an analytical approach (partly formulated as nonlinear optimization problem) for a slightly adapted scheduling problem. We show that in some cases the results of the simple scheduling schemes (round-robin, and best-first) are close to optimal. However, the optimal schedules, computed according to both methods, also clearly show that in a variety of scenarios, the simple schedules are far from optimal.
    Original languageUndefined
    Pages (from-to)276-286
    Number of pages11
    JournalIEEE transactions on industrial informatics
    Volume6
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2010

    Keywords

    • EWI-18215
    • Embedded Systems
    • Scheduling
    • Batteries
    • METIS-277414
    • IR-72598
    • lifetime optimization

    Cite this

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    title = "Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems",
    abstract = "The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery properties of the batteries helps to extend the overall systems lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round-robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. In this paper, we compare these scheduling schemes with the optimal scheduling scheme produced with two different modeling approaches: an approach based on a priced-timed automaton model (implemented and evaluated in Uppaal Cora), as well as an analytical approach (partly formulated as nonlinear optimization problem) for a slightly adapted scheduling problem. We show that in some cases the results of the simple scheduling schemes (round-robin, and best-first) are close to optimal. However, the optimal schedules, computed according to both methods, also clearly show that in a variety of scenarios, the simple schedules are far from optimal.",
    keywords = "EWI-18215, Embedded Systems, Scheduling, Batteries, METIS-277414, IR-72598, lifetime optimization",
    author = "M.R. Jongerden and Alexandru Mereacre and H.C. Bohnenkamp and Haverkort, {Boudewijn R.H.M.} and Katoen, {Joost P.}",
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    Computing Optimal Schedules of Battery Usage in Embedded Systems. / Jongerden, M.R.; Mereacre, Alexandru; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Katoen, Joost P.

    In: IEEE transactions on industrial informatics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2010, p. 276-286.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    AU - Jongerden, M.R.

    AU - Mereacre, Alexandru

    AU - Bohnenkamp, H.C.

    AU - Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    AU - Katoen, Joost P.

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    N2 - The use of mobile devices is often limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries or battery cells over the load to exploit the recovery properties of the batteries helps to extend the overall systems lifetime. Straightforward scheduling schemes, like round-robin or choosing the best battery available, already provide a big improvement compared to a sequential discharge of the batteries. In this paper, we compare these scheduling schemes with the optimal scheduling scheme produced with two different modeling approaches: an approach based on a priced-timed automaton model (implemented and evaluated in Uppaal Cora), as well as an analytical approach (partly formulated as nonlinear optimization problem) for a slightly adapted scheduling problem. We show that in some cases the results of the simple scheduling schemes (round-robin, and best-first) are close to optimal. However, the optimal schedules, computed according to both methods, also clearly show that in a variety of scenarios, the simple schedules are far from optimal.

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