The synthesis of fuel-range molecules by condensation of biomass-derived furfural and acetone has been studied in a biphasic emulsion system. Nanohybrids composed of basic oxide nanoparticles fused to carbon nanotubes have been used to simultaneously stabilize water/oil emulsions and catalyze the condensation reaction. Under the same conditions, higher conversions and higher fractions of fuel-range condensation products (C8-C13) have been obtained in the emulsion compared to those obtained in the single phase. Furthermore, when using metallized nanohybrids these emulsions have been used to hydrogenate the oil-soluble condensation products. Both model compounds and synthetic bio-oil mixtures have been used to demonstrate that catalytic emulsion systems could be effective for upgrading complex mixtures, such as pyrolysis oil.
- Carbon nanotubes
- Hydrophobic and hydrophilic catalysts
- Pyrolysis oil