Consistent and asymptotically normal PLS estimators for linear structural equations

Theo K. Dijkstra, Jörg Henseler

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748 Citations (Scopus)
173 Downloads (Pure)


A vital extension to partial least squares (PLS) path modeling is introduced: consistency. While maintaining all the strengths of PLS, the consistent version provides two key improvements. Path coefficients, parameters of simultaneous equations, construct correlations, and indicator loadings are estimated consistently. The global goodness-of-fit of the structural model can also now be assessed, which makes PLS suitable for confirmatory research. A Monte Carlo simulation illustrates the new approach and compares it with covariance-based structural equation modeling
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10-23
JournalComputational statistics & data analysis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • IR-91538
  • METIS-304686
  • Partial least squares (PLS)
  • Structural equation modeling (SEM)
  • Consistency
  • Recursiveness
  • Goodness-of-fit


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