We demonstrate the controlled growth of Bi(110) and Bi(111) films on an α-Al2O3(0001) substrate by surface x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity using synchrotron radiation. At temperatures as low as 40 K, unanticipated pseudo-cubic Bi(110) films are grown with thicknesses ranging from a few to tens of nanometers. The roughness at the film–vacuum as well as the film–substrate interface, can be reduced by mild heating, where a crystallographic orientation transition of Bi(110) towards Bi(111) is observed at 400 K. From 450 K onwards high quality ultrasmooth Bi(111) films form. Growth around the transition temperature results in the growth of competing Bi(110) and Bi(111) domains.
Jankowski, M., Kaminski, D., Vergeer, K., Mirolo, M., Carla, F., Rijnders, A. J. H. M., & Bollmann, T. R. J. (2017). Controlling the growth of Bi(110) and Bi(111) films on an insulating substrate. Nanotechnology, 28(15), . https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa61dd