Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of coronary artery calcification (CAC) on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and the respective performance of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Background: Whether contemporary DES have improved the long-term prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in lesions with severe CAC is unknown. Methods: Individual patient data were pooled from 18 randomized trials evaluating DES, categorized according to the presence of angiography core laboratory–confirmed moderate or severe CAC. Major endpoints were the patient-oriented composite endpoint (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or any revascularization) and the device-oriented composite endpoint of target lesion failure (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization). Multivariate Cox proportional regression with study as a random effect was used to assess 5-year outcomes. Results: A total of 19,833 patients were included. Moderate or severe CAC was present in 1 or more target lesions in 6,211 patients (31.3%) and was associated with increased 5-year risk for the patient-oriented composite endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.20) and target lesion failure (adjHR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.34), as well as death, MI, and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization. In patients with CAC, use of second-generation DES compared with first-generation DES was associated with reductions in the 5-year risk for the patient-oriented composite endpoint (adjHR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00) and target lesion failure (adjHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.87), as well as death or MI, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. The relative treatment effects of second-generation compared with first-generation DES were consistent in patients with and without moderate or severe CAC, although outcomes were consistently better with contemporary devices. Conclusions: In this large-scale study, percutaneous coronary intervention of target lesion moderate or severe CAC was associated with adverse patient-oriented and device-oriented adverse outcomes at 5 years. These detrimental effects were mitigated with second-generation DES.
- coronary artery calcification
- drug-eluting stent
- percutaneous coronary intervention