Covalent bonding of PMMA, PBMA, and poly(HEMA) to hydroxyapatite particles

Q. Liu, J.R. de Wijn, C.A. van Blitterswijk

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In our earlier study, we showed that the surface hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite have the ability to react with organic isocyanate groups. In this study, the feasibility of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)] by using the reaction of isocyanate groups with the hydroxyl groups on the surface of HA was investigated. Double bonds were introduced to the surface of HA via the coupling reaction of isocyanateoethyl methacrylate (ICEM) with HA, or through hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and HA, followed by radical polymerization in MMA, BMA, or HEMA. Infrared spectra indicated the existence of polymers on the surfaces of HA. Thermogravimetric analysis also confirmed the presence of grafted polymers on the surface of HA powder particles (20-26 wt%). The polymers gave typical PMMA, PBMA, or poly(HEMA) infrared spectra, with the exception of amide bands, a result of the coupling reaction of ICEM or HMDI with hydroxy groups of HA or HEMA. Therefore it is concluded that the polymers were chemically bonded to the surface of HA through the isocyanate groups of ICEM or HMDI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-263
JournalJournal of biomedical materials research
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate)
  • Composites
  • Poly(butyl methacrylate)
  • Bone cement
  • Surface grafting
  • Poly(methyl methacrylate)
  • Hydroxyapatite


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