Material-induced bone formation reported in canine, bovid, suid, and primate species does not often occur in lagomorph or rodent models. In this study, we test biphasic calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite- induced bone formation in subcutaneous pockets of mice and intramuscular pockets in rats, rabbits, and dogs. All scaffolds are of similar size, and all animals were sacrificed at 90 days post-implantation. In dogs (N = 8), all implants showed bone formation with significantly more bone formed in biphasic calcium phosphates (30 ± 6%, N = 8) as compared to hydroxyapatite (14 ± 5%, N = 8) (p = 0.003). Hydroxyapatite implants did not induce bone formation in mice, rats, or rabbits. Biphasic calcium phosphate induced bone in 6 of 8 scaffolds implanted in 4 rabbits and 3 of 16 scaffolds implanted in 16 mice, whereas it did not induce bone formation in any of the 8 rats. The results presented herein suggest that the incidence of material-induced bone formation varies with animal species and is related to the implant material used.
Yuan, H., van Blitterswijk, C., de Groot, K., & de Bruijn, J. D. (2006). Cross-species comparison of ectopic bone formation in biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds. Tissue engineering, 12(6), 1607-1615. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.2006.12.1607