Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

S. Vanapalli, Midhun Joy

Research output: Other contributionPopular


The commercial deployment of cryogenic solutions has expanded significantly in recent decades, from their early adoption to maintain the integrity of the cold chain to their use to induce changes in the physicochemical properties of materials. Compared to mechanical cooling-based cryogenic technologies that rely on vapor-compression cycles, the use of liquid cryogens (such as liquid nitrogen, helium, argon) offers the benefits of higher cooling rates, lower attainable temperature levels, uniform temperature distribution, absence of mechanical components, and reduced maintenance requirements. Various technologies have been developed in recent decades exploiting the potential of these liquid cryogens, namely cryogenic freezers that can guarantee uniform and fast cooling rates, cryo-based spray freezing and micronization processes that improve the bio-assimilation of pharmaceutical drugs, as well as novel routes for the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients.
Original languageEnglish
TypeInternational Institute of Refrigeration: Encyclopedia
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2022


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