Lanthanum tungstate (LWO) and LWO with 20 at.% and 35 at.% molybdenum substituting tungsten were prepared by the Pechini method. Phase purity and successful Mo substitution inside these dense LWO membrane materials were confirmed by conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques. The split of La 2 /W 2 site by around 0.3 Å was proven. Extra reflections show up in the diffraction patterns from Mo-substituted LWO, and together with simulations, these reflections were recognized as forbidden reflections in a non-substituted LWO system, while the extinction rules are broken by Mo substitution due to the different scattering factors of W and Mo. Energy-dispersive X-ray chemical mapping allowed direct visualization of individual atomic columns, and revealed that all Mo is located at the W 1 sites in the Mo-substituted LWO. Moreover, the diffuse scattering in diffraction patterns provides direct evidence of short range clustering of oxygen vacancies and could be further related to the oxygen conduction of the LWO membranes.