Current Trends in Ceramifiable Polymer Composites Development

Rafal Piotr Anyszka, Dariusz Bielinski, Mateusz Imiela, Zbigniew Pedzich

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Although ceramifiable composites have been developed for over 30 years, there is still very broad area for an enhancement of their properties. Following scientific articles in this field, one can find out that since 2013 the number of the papers started to rise significantly [1]. The ceramifiable composites consist of polymer continuous phase and properly designed mix of mineral fillers. Ceramification is an advanced passive flame retardancy process based on formation of continuous ceramic structure on the surface of the composite, which limits transfer of flammable fuel into burning zone as well as oxygen into polymer matrix. Moreover, the ceramic structure provides protection against heat and mechanical stress. In principle, ceramification is improved version of more traditional flame retardancy method based on char formation. However, the ceramic structure formed in ceramification process exhibits outstanding barrier and mechanical properties in comparison to loosely bonded char formed by traditional methods. A key feature characterizing both these methods is lack of toxic or hazardous products formation during flame retardant action. This increases safety of human life and health during a fire accident.
Due to silicone elastomers ability to create silica while burning, this group of polymers was firstly selected as continuous phase for ceramifiable composites [2, 3]. The silica created, takes part in the ceramic structure formation, actively improving its properties. On the other hand, silicone rubber exhibits limited ability to incorporate large amount of fillers without a rapid decrease of its mechanical properties. Sufficient amount of mineral fillers is also crucial from the point of view of the ceramification performance. Therefore, recent research in this filed has focused on various organic polymers, much more common in industrial practice and of lower price. Generally, various organic rubbers may be filled with mineral powders up to 300-400 weight parts per hundred parts of their own mass. This allows development of high performance caramifiable composites of much more affordable price. However, high fillers load makes the processability of the composites more challenging, resulting in, for example worse extrudability. This problem must be also addressed in future works. Recently, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) [4, 5] and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) [6] are considered to be the most promising materials for continuous phase for ceramifiable composites.

[1] Scopus database, searched words: “ceramifiable” or “ceramizable”,
[2] L.G. Hanu, G.P. Simon, J. Mansouri, R.P. Burford, Y.B. Cheng, J. Mater. Process Tech., 153-154 (2004) 401
[3] L.G. Hanu, G.P. Simon, Y.B. Cheng, Mat. Sci. Eng. A, 398 (2005) 180
[4] G. Xinhao, S. Yucai, W. Tingwei, RSC Adv., 6 (2016) 96984
[5] Y-M. Li, C. Deng, Y-Z. Wang, Compos. Sci. Technol., 132 (2016) 116
[6] R. Anyszka, D.M. Bieliński, Z. Pędzich, P. Rybiński, M. Imiela, M. Siciński, M. Zarzecka-Napierała, T. Gozdek, P. Rutkowski P., Materials, 9 (2016) 604
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationESTAC 12
Subtitle of host publication12th European Symposium on Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Brasov, 27-30 August 2018
EditorsAndrei Rotaru, Crisan Popescu
PublisherCentral and Eastern European Committee for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Number of pages1
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-940237-50-7
Publication statusPublished - 29 Aug 2018
Event12th European Symposium on Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2018 - Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania
Duration: 27 Aug 201830 Aug 2018
Conference number: 12


Conference12th European Symposium on Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2018
Abbreviated titleESTAC 12
Internet address


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