Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires?

J.H.R. Schrader, Eric A.M. Klumperink, J.L. Visschers, Bram Nauta

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In a digital X-ray imaging system, data has to be transmitted from the detector to the storage system. In future digital X-ray imaging systems, higher data rates will be needed. For some applications, e.g. protein crystallography at synchrotron beams, data rates in the order of gigabits per second are expected. Present trend for such systems is to move from a parallel data bus towards a high-speed serial readout. For high speed signaling over short distances (up to 10 m) the attenuation of copper cables is low enough to permit multi-gigabit per second speeds. In this article, an overview will be given of problems encountered in high speed data transmission over copper cable and techniques will be shown to overcome these problems. The bandwidth bottleneck in short distance communication is in the IC-technology and not in the channel. The cable transfer function results in inter-symbol interference (ISI). The skin-effect is the most significant cause of ISI for short length (10 m) coaxial copper cables. Fortunately, equalization can compensate for these effects. An equalizer has a transfer function that is the inverse of the channel transfer function. With the correct equalizer, a very low Bit Error Ratio (BER) can be achieved. The measured RG-58U cable (τ1=0.12 ns) could transmit at a bit rate of 8.3 Gbps, with a BER of 10−12. Multi-gigabit speeds are possible over short length coaxial copper cables.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors
Place of PublicationNetherlands
PublisherElsevier Science
Pages221-227
Number of pages7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2004
Event6th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Devices, IWORID 2004 - Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 25 Jul 200429 Jul 2004
Conference number: 6

Publication series

Name
PublisherElsevier Science
Volume531
ISSN (Print)0168-9002
ISSN (Electronic)1872-9576

Workshop

Workshop6th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Devices, IWORID 2004
Abbreviated titleIWORID 2004
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period25/07/0429/07/04

Fingerprint

Cables
Wire
Copper
Communication
Transfer functions
Equalizers
Imaging systems
X rays
Skin effect
Crystallography
Synchrotrons
Data communication systems
Detectors
Proteins
Bandwidth

Keywords

  • Copper
  • METIS-219308
  • EWI-14479
  • Medipix
  • Data-communication
  • Jitter
  • IR-57306
  • Equalization

Cite this

Schrader, J. H. R., Klumperink, E. A. M., Visschers, J. L., & Nauta, B. (2004). Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires? In Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors (pp. 221-227). Netherlands: Elsevier Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009
Schrader, J.H.R. ; Klumperink, Eric A.M. ; Visschers, J.L. ; Nauta, Bram. / Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires?. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors. Netherlands : Elsevier Science, 2004. pp. 221-227
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title = "Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires?",
abstract = "In a digital X-ray imaging system, data has to be transmitted from the detector to the storage system. In future digital X-ray imaging systems, higher data rates will be needed. For some applications, e.g. protein crystallography at synchrotron beams, data rates in the order of gigabits per second are expected. Present trend for such systems is to move from a parallel data bus towards a high-speed serial readout. For high speed signaling over short distances (up to 10 m) the attenuation of copper cables is low enough to permit multi-gigabit per second speeds. In this article, an overview will be given of problems encountered in high speed data transmission over copper cable and techniques will be shown to overcome these problems. The bandwidth bottleneck in short distance communication is in the IC-technology and not in the channel. The cable transfer function results in inter-symbol interference (ISI). The skin-effect is the most significant cause of ISI for short length (10 m) coaxial copper cables. Fortunately, equalization can compensate for these effects. An equalizer has a transfer function that is the inverse of the channel transfer function. With the correct equalizer, a very low Bit Error Ratio (BER) can be achieved. The measured RG-58U cable (τ1=0.12 ns) could transmit at a bit rate of 8.3 Gbps, with a BER of 10−12. Multi-gigabit speeds are possible over short length coaxial copper cables.",
keywords = "Copper, METIS-219308, EWI-14479, Medipix, Data-communication, Jitter, IR-57306, Equalization",
author = "J.H.R. Schrader and Klumperink, {Eric A.M.} and J.L. Visschers and Bram Nauta",
note = "Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Riga, Latvia, 07-11 September 2003",
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doi = "10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009",
language = "English",
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Schrader, JHR, Klumperink, EAM, Visschers, JL & Nauta, B 2004, Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires? in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors. Elsevier Science, Netherlands, pp. 221-227, 6th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Devices, IWORID 2004, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 25/07/04. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009

Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires? / Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram.

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors. Netherlands : Elsevier Science, 2004. p. 221-227.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires?

AU - Schrader, J.H.R.

AU - Klumperink, Eric A.M.

AU - Visschers, J.L.

AU - Nauta, Bram

N1 - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors, Riga, Latvia, 07-11 September 2003

PY - 2004/9

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N2 - In a digital X-ray imaging system, data has to be transmitted from the detector to the storage system. In future digital X-ray imaging systems, higher data rates will be needed. For some applications, e.g. protein crystallography at synchrotron beams, data rates in the order of gigabits per second are expected. Present trend for such systems is to move from a parallel data bus towards a high-speed serial readout. For high speed signaling over short distances (up to 10 m) the attenuation of copper cables is low enough to permit multi-gigabit per second speeds. In this article, an overview will be given of problems encountered in high speed data transmission over copper cable and techniques will be shown to overcome these problems. The bandwidth bottleneck in short distance communication is in the IC-technology and not in the channel. The cable transfer function results in inter-symbol interference (ISI). The skin-effect is the most significant cause of ISI for short length (10 m) coaxial copper cables. Fortunately, equalization can compensate for these effects. An equalizer has a transfer function that is the inverse of the channel transfer function. With the correct equalizer, a very low Bit Error Ratio (BER) can be achieved. The measured RG-58U cable (τ1=0.12 ns) could transmit at a bit rate of 8.3 Gbps, with a BER of 10−12. Multi-gigabit speeds are possible over short length coaxial copper cables.

AB - In a digital X-ray imaging system, data has to be transmitted from the detector to the storage system. In future digital X-ray imaging systems, higher data rates will be needed. For some applications, e.g. protein crystallography at synchrotron beams, data rates in the order of gigabits per second are expected. Present trend for such systems is to move from a parallel data bus towards a high-speed serial readout. For high speed signaling over short distances (up to 10 m) the attenuation of copper cables is low enough to permit multi-gigabit per second speeds. In this article, an overview will be given of problems encountered in high speed data transmission over copper cable and techniques will be shown to overcome these problems. The bandwidth bottleneck in short distance communication is in the IC-technology and not in the channel. The cable transfer function results in inter-symbol interference (ISI). The skin-effect is the most significant cause of ISI for short length (10 m) coaxial copper cables. Fortunately, equalization can compensate for these effects. An equalizer has a transfer function that is the inverse of the channel transfer function. With the correct equalizer, a very low Bit Error Ratio (BER) can be achieved. The measured RG-58U cable (τ1=0.12 ns) could transmit at a bit rate of 8.3 Gbps, with a BER of 10−12. Multi-gigabit speeds are possible over short length coaxial copper cables.

KW - Copper

KW - METIS-219308

KW - EWI-14479

KW - Medipix

KW - Data-communication

KW - Jitter

KW - IR-57306

KW - Equalization

U2 - 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009

DO - 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009

M3 - Conference contribution

SP - 221

EP - 227

BT - Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

PB - Elsevier Science

CY - Netherlands

ER -

Schrader JHR, Klumperink EAM, Visschers JL, Nauta B. Data Communication in Read-Out Systems: How Fast Can We Go Over Copper Wires? In Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment - Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors. Netherlands: Elsevier Science. 2004. p. 221-227 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.009