Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Spyros Voulgaris, Matthew Dobson, Maarten van Steen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communication, unless nodes switch their radios on at synchronized intervals—a rather nontrivial coordination task. In this article, we address the problem of synchronizing node radios to a single universal schedule in wireless mobile ad hoc networks that can potentially consist of thousands of nodes. More specifically, we are interested in operating the network with duty cycles that can be less than 1% of the total cycle time. We identify the fundamental issues that govern cluster merging and provide a detailed comparison of various policies using extensive simulations based on a variety of mobility patterns. We propose a specific scheme that allows a 4,000-node network to stay synchronized with a duty cycle of approximately 0.7%. Our work is based on an existing, experimental MAC protocol that we use for real-world applications and is validated in a real network of around 120 mobile nodes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5
    Number of pages42
    JournalACM transactions on sensor networks
    Volume12
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2016

    Fingerprint

    Radio receivers
    Wireless ad hoc networks
    Mobile ad hoc networks
    Synchronization
    Merging
    Wireless sensor networks
    Energy utilization
    Switches
    Network protocols
    Communication

    Keywords

    • Wireless mesh networks
    • Mobile networks
    • Mobile ad hoc networks
    • Self-organizing autonomic computing

    Cite this

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    title = "Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks",
    abstract = "Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communication, unless nodes switch their radios on at synchronized intervals—a rather nontrivial coordination task. In this article, we address the problem of synchronizing node radios to a single universal schedule in wireless mobile ad hoc networks that can potentially consist of thousands of nodes. More specifically, we are interested in operating the network with duty cycles that can be less than 1{\%} of the total cycle time. We identify the fundamental issues that govern cluster merging and provide a detailed comparison of various policies using extensive simulations based on a variety of mobility patterns. We propose a specific scheme that allows a 4,000-node network to stay synchronized with a duty cycle of approximately 0.7{\%}. Our work is based on an existing, experimental MAC protocol that we use for real-world applications and is validated in a real network of around 120 mobile nodes.",
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    author = "Spyros Voulgaris and Matthew Dobson and {van Steen}, Maarten",
    year = "2016",
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    language = "English",
    volume = "12",
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    journal = "ACM transactions on sensor networks",
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    Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. / Voulgaris, Spyros; Dobson, Matthew; van Steen, Maarten.

    In: ACM transactions on sensor networks, Vol. 12, No. 1, 03.2016, p. 5.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Decentralized Network-level Synchronization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    AU - Voulgaris, Spyros

    AU - Dobson, Matthew

    AU - van Steen, Maarten

    PY - 2016/3

    Y1 - 2016/3

    N2 - Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communication, unless nodes switch their radios on at synchronized intervals—a rather nontrivial coordination task. In this article, we address the problem of synchronizing node radios to a single universal schedule in wireless mobile ad hoc networks that can potentially consist of thousands of nodes. More specifically, we are interested in operating the network with duty cycles that can be less than 1% of the total cycle time. We identify the fundamental issues that govern cluster merging and provide a detailed comparison of various policies using extensive simulations based on a variety of mobility patterns. We propose a specific scheme that allows a 4,000-node network to stay synchronized with a duty cycle of approximately 0.7%. Our work is based on an existing, experimental MAC protocol that we use for real-world applications and is validated in a real network of around 120 mobile nodes.

    AB - Energy is the scarcest resource in ad hoc wireless networks, particularly in wireless sensor networks requiring a long lifetime. Intermittently switching the radio on and off is widely adopted as the most effective way to keep energy consumption low. This, however, prevents the very goal of communication, unless nodes switch their radios on at synchronized intervals—a rather nontrivial coordination task. In this article, we address the problem of synchronizing node radios to a single universal schedule in wireless mobile ad hoc networks that can potentially consist of thousands of nodes. More specifically, we are interested in operating the network with duty cycles that can be less than 1% of the total cycle time. We identify the fundamental issues that govern cluster merging and provide a detailed comparison of various policies using extensive simulations based on a variety of mobility patterns. We propose a specific scheme that allows a 4,000-node network to stay synchronized with a duty cycle of approximately 0.7%. Our work is based on an existing, experimental MAC protocol that we use for real-world applications and is validated in a real network of around 120 mobile nodes.

    KW - Wireless mesh networks

    KW - Mobile networks

    KW - Mobile ad hoc networks

    KW - Self-organizing autonomic computing

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    DO - 10.1145/2880223

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 5

    JO - ACM transactions on sensor networks

    JF - ACM transactions on sensor networks

    SN - 1550-4859

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