Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from node mobility and the demands of position-dependent applications. On the routing layer, those requirements are well met by geographic routing protocols. Functional research on geographic routing has already reached a considerable level, whereas security aspects have only been recently taken into account. Position information dissemination has been identified as being crucial for geographic routing since forged position information has severe impact regarding both performance and security. In this work, we first summarize the problems that arise from falsified position data. We then propose a framework that contains different detection mechanisms in order to mitigate or lessen these problems. Our developed mechanisms are capable of recognizing nodes cheating about their position in beacons (periodic position dissemination in most single-path geographic routing protocols, e.g., GPSR). Unlike other proposals described in the literature, our detection system does not rely on additional hardware or special nodes, which would contradict the ad hoc approach. Instead, we use a number of different independent sensors to quickly give an estimation of the trustworthiness of other nodes' position claims. The different sensors run either autonomously on every single node, or they require cooperation between neighboring nodes. The simulation evaluation proves that the combination of autonomous and cooperative position verification mechanisms successfully discloses most nodes disseminating false position information, and thereby widely prevents attacks using position cheating.
- position verification
Leinmüller, T., Schoch, E., Kargl, F., & Maihöfer, C. (2010). Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing. Security and communication networks, 3(4), 289-302. https://doi.org/10.1002/sec.56