Deep-Learning-Based Compliant Motion Control of a Pneumatically-Driven Robotic Catheter

Di Wu*, Xuan Thao Ha, Yao Zhang, Mouloud Ourak, Gianni Borghesan, Kenan Niu, Fabian Trauzettel, Jenny Dankelman, Arianna Menciassi, Emmanuel Vander Poorten

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


In cardiovascular interventions, when steering catheters and especially robotic catheters, great care should be paid to prevent applying too large forces on the vessel walls as this could dislodge calcifications, induce scars or even cause perforation. To address this challenge, this paper presents a novel compliant motion control algorithm that relies solely on position sensing of the catheter tip and knowledge of the catheter's behavior. The proposed algorithm features a data-driven tip position controller. The controller is trained based on a so-called control Long Short-Term Memory Network (control-LSTM). Trajectory following experiments are conducted to validate the quality of the proposed control-LSTM. Results demonstrated superior positioning capability with sub-degree precision of the new approach in the presence of severe rate-dependent hysteresis. Experiments both in a simplified setup as well as in an aortic phantom further show that the proposed approach allows reducing the interaction forces with the environment by around 70%. This work shows how deep learning can be exploited advantageously to avoid tedious modeling that would be needed to precisely steer continuum robots in constrained environments such as the patient's vasculature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9807375
Pages (from-to)8853-8860
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and automation letters
Issue number4
Early online date27 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • compliant motion control
  • hysteresis
  • LSTM
  • pneumatic artificial muscle
  • Robotic catheter


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