A Defect-Based Test (DBT) methodology for Superconductor Electronics (SCE) is presented in this thesis, so that commercial production and efficient testing of systems can be implemented in this technology in the future. In the first chapter, the features and prospects for SCE have been presented. The motivation for this research and the outline of the thesis were also described in Chapter 1. It has been shown that high-end applications such as Software-Defined Radio (SDR) and petaflop computers which are extremely difficult to implement in top-of-the-art semiconductor technologies can be realised using SCE. But, a systematic structural test methodology had yet to be developed for SCE and has been addressed in this thesis. A detailed introduction to Rapid Single-Flux Quantum (RSFQ) circuits was presented in Chapter 2. A Josephson Junction (JJ) was described with associated theory behind its operation. The JJ model used in the simulator used in this research work was also presented. RSFQ logic with logic protocols as well as the design and implementation of an example D-type flip-flop (DFF) was also introduced. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of RSFQ circuits have been discussed with focus on the latest developments in the field. Various techniques for testing RSFQ circuits were discussed in Chapter 3. A Process Defect Monitor (PDM) approach was presented for fabrication process analysis. The presented defect-monitor structures were used to gather measurement data, to find the probability of the occurrence of defects in the process which forms the first step for Inductive Fault Analysis (IFA). Results from measurements on these structures were used to create a database for defects. This information can be used as input for performing IFA. â€œDefect-sprinklingï¿½? over a fault-free circuit can be carried out according to the measured defect densities over various layers. After layout extraction and extensive fault simulation, the resulting information will indicate realistic faults. In addition, possible Design-for-Testability (DfT) schemes for monitoring Single-Flux Quantum (SFQ) pulses within an RSFQ circuit has also been discussed in Chapter 3. The requirement for a DfT scheme is inevitable for RSFQ circuits because of their very high frequency of operation and very low operating temperature. It was demonstrated how SFQ pulses can be monitored at an internal node of an SCE circuit, introducing observability using Test-Point Insertion (TPI). Various techniques were discussed for the introduction of DfT and to avoid the delay introduced by the DfT structure if it is required. The available features in the proposed design for customising the detector make it attractive for a detailed DBT of RSFQ circuits. The control of internal nodes has also been illustrated using TPI. The test structures that were designed and implemented to determine the occurrence of defects in the processes can also be used to locate the position for the insertion of the above mentioned DfT structures.
|Award date||13 May 2006|
|Place of Publication||Enschede, The Netherlands|
|Publication status||Published - 13 May 2006|