Defect formation in single layer graphene under extreme ultraviolet irradiation

An Gao, E. Zoethout, Jacobus Marinus Sturm, Christopher James Lee, Frederik Bijkerk

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11 Citations (Scopus)


We study extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced defects in single-layer graphene. Two mechanisms for inducing defects in graphene were separately investigated: photon induced chemical reactions between graphene and background residual gases, and breaking sp2 bonds, due to photon and/or photoelectrons induced bond cleaving. Raman spectroscopy shows that D peak intensities grow after EUV irradiation with increasing water partial pressure in the exposure chamber. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments prove that EUV radiation results in water dissociation on the graphene surface. The oxidation of graphene, caused by water dissociation, is triggered by photon and/or photoelectron induced dissociation of water. Our studies show that the EUV photons break the sp2 bonds, forming sp3 bonds, leading to defects in graphene.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)745-751
Number of pages7
JournalApplied surface science
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • IR-93252
  • METIS-307248


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