Defining Key Factors in Carbon Black-Filled NR/BR Compounds for Balancing Aircraft Tire Tread Properties

I Indriasari*, Wisut Kaewsakul, Wilma K. Dierkes, Anke Blume

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Carbon black (CB) is the most common reinforcing filler used in aircraft tire tread
formulations. For CB-reinforced natural rubber/butadiene rubber (NR/BR) compounds, material and processing parameters are important factors that need to be controlled, as they can influence both, processing as well as the vulcanizate properties. It is essential to investigate and optimize the key
elements, in order to achieve the target properties, while maintaining an acceptable trade-o for other characteristics. In the present study, the type of BR, mixer temperature, rotor speed, and filler mixing time were selected as input factors. A complete design of experiments (DOE) process was performed
that comprised the following—two-level full factorial setup for initial screening, response surface method (RSM) for optimization, and confirmation runs for validation. This evaluation procedure was used to study the impact of factors and their interactions on the properties of CB-filled NR/BR compounds. From the DOE optimization which was later confirmed by the DOE validation, high
rotor speed and long filler mixing time were the most significant factors in improving the Mooney viscosity, modulus at 300% elongation, hysteresis (tan delta), as well as in reducing the filler–filler interaction (Payne eect). In the case of tensile strength (TS) and abrasion resistance index (ARI), high rotor speed and long filler mixing time had an adverse eect, thus, causing a deterioration of
these properties. Therefore, it is recommended to decrease the filler mixing time when combining it with high rotor speed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number47
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Composites Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 May 2019


  • Carbon black
  • Aircraft tires


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