Dendrimer-Encapsulated Palladium Nanoparticles for Continuous-Flow Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions

R. Ricciardi, Jurriaan Huskens, M. Holtkamp, U. Karst, Willem Verboom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Generation three, four, and five (G3, G4, and G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used for the encapsulation of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their covalent anchoring within glass microreactors. G3-encapsulated Pd NPs showed the highest activity for a model Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling (SMC) reaction of the three different encapsulated Pd NPs tested, as compared to G4 and G5. A kinetic study indicated a role of the nanoparticle as a procatalyst, from which molecular species are formed with an induction time of approximately 1 min. The dendrimer–nanoparticle catalytic platform exhibited excellent reactivity (high turnover frequencies and numbers) compared to other Pd NP flow reactors and dendrimer-encapsulated Pd NPs at batch scale. Moreover, the Pd microreactor exhibited good stability, as witnessed by running the SMC reaction for more than 7 days with a low Pd leaching of 1.2 ppm. The covalently attached dendrimers may play a crucial role in stabilizing the Pd NPs, a critical feature in flow SMC reactions
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)936-942
Number of pages7
JournalChemCatChem
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Dendrimers
cross coupling
dendrimers
Palladium
palladium
Nanoparticles
nanoparticles
leaching
Encapsulation
Leaching
induction
reactivity
platforms
reactors
Glass
Kinetics
glass
kinetics

Keywords

  • METIS-314647
  • IR-99888
  • dendrimers
  • flow chemistry
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • microreactors
  • nanoparticles

Cite this

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title = "Dendrimer-Encapsulated Palladium Nanoparticles for Continuous-Flow Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions",
abstract = "Generation three, four, and five (G3, G4, and G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used for the encapsulation of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their covalent anchoring within glass microreactors. G3-encapsulated Pd NPs showed the highest activity for a model Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling (SMC) reaction of the three different encapsulated Pd NPs tested, as compared to G4 and G5. A kinetic study indicated a role of the nanoparticle as a procatalyst, from which molecular species are formed with an induction time of approximately 1 min. The dendrimer–nanoparticle catalytic platform exhibited excellent reactivity (high turnover frequencies and numbers) compared to other Pd NP flow reactors and dendrimer-encapsulated Pd NPs at batch scale. Moreover, the Pd microreactor exhibited good stability, as witnessed by running the SMC reaction for more than 7 days with a low Pd leaching of 1.2 ppm. The covalently attached dendrimers may play a crucial role in stabilizing the Pd NPs, a critical feature in flow SMC reactions",
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author = "R. Ricciardi and Jurriaan Huskens and M. Holtkamp and U. Karst and Willem Verboom",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1002/cctc.201500017",
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Dendrimer-Encapsulated Palladium Nanoparticles for Continuous-Flow Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions. / Ricciardi, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Holtkamp, M.; Karst, U.; Verboom, Willem.

In: ChemCatChem, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2015, p. 936-942.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dendrimer-Encapsulated Palladium Nanoparticles for Continuous-Flow Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions

AU - Ricciardi, R.

AU - Huskens, Jurriaan

AU - Holtkamp, M.

AU - Karst, U.

AU - Verboom, Willem

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Generation three, four, and five (G3, G4, and G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used for the encapsulation of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their covalent anchoring within glass microreactors. G3-encapsulated Pd NPs showed the highest activity for a model Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling (SMC) reaction of the three different encapsulated Pd NPs tested, as compared to G4 and G5. A kinetic study indicated a role of the nanoparticle as a procatalyst, from which molecular species are formed with an induction time of approximately 1 min. The dendrimer–nanoparticle catalytic platform exhibited excellent reactivity (high turnover frequencies and numbers) compared to other Pd NP flow reactors and dendrimer-encapsulated Pd NPs at batch scale. Moreover, the Pd microreactor exhibited good stability, as witnessed by running the SMC reaction for more than 7 days with a low Pd leaching of 1.2 ppm. The covalently attached dendrimers may play a crucial role in stabilizing the Pd NPs, a critical feature in flow SMC reactions

AB - Generation three, four, and five (G3, G4, and G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were used for the encapsulation of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) and their covalent anchoring within glass microreactors. G3-encapsulated Pd NPs showed the highest activity for a model Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling (SMC) reaction of the three different encapsulated Pd NPs tested, as compared to G4 and G5. A kinetic study indicated a role of the nanoparticle as a procatalyst, from which molecular species are formed with an induction time of approximately 1 min. The dendrimer–nanoparticle catalytic platform exhibited excellent reactivity (high turnover frequencies and numbers) compared to other Pd NP flow reactors and dendrimer-encapsulated Pd NPs at batch scale. Moreover, the Pd microreactor exhibited good stability, as witnessed by running the SMC reaction for more than 7 days with a low Pd leaching of 1.2 ppm. The covalently attached dendrimers may play a crucial role in stabilizing the Pd NPs, a critical feature in flow SMC reactions

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KW - flow chemistry

KW - heterogeneous catalysis

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KW - nanoparticles

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