Deployment and retrofit strategy for rubber-tyred gantry cranes considering carbon emissions

Yi Ding, Yang Yang*, Leonard Heilig, Eduardo Lalla-Ruiz, Stefan Voss

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
244 Downloads (Pure)


Driven by green port initiatives, container terminal operators have been substituting environmentally and economically inefficient diesel-powered rubber-tyred gantry cranes (RTGs) with new or retrofitted electric ones. Such an investment is closely related to operational activities, and the process of retrofitting should be carried out under the premise of satisfying the terminal yard container handling requirement. An integer programming model is proposed to help decision-makers determine the investment timing and deploy available RTGs to achieve a CO2 emissions reduction target. Considering the distinctive characteristics of different types of RTGs, we develop a deployment plan as well as an RTGs purchase and retrofit strategy. Moreover, the decisions satisfy an operation workload requirement. A tailored Corridor Method (CM) is used to accommodate large scale real-world instances. The application is illustrated with a modestly sized container terminal yard. Results confirm that electrifying diesel-powered RTGs is effective in curbing CO2 emissions and reducing energy costs. Our numerical experiments also highlight the importance of an appropriate emissions reduction target.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107645
JournalComputers & industrial engineering
Early online date26 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Corridor Method
  • Green Port
  • Integer programming
  • RTGs retrofitting
  • Rubber-tyred Gantry Cranes
  • Yard crane deployment


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