Design and Evaluation of the LOPES Exoskeleton Robot for Interactive Gait Rehabilitation

J.F. Veneman, R. Kruidhof, Edsko E.G. Hekman, R. Ekkelenkamp, Edwin H.F. van Asseldonk, Herman van der Kooij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

871 Citations (Scopus)
581 Downloads (Pure)


This paper introduces a newly developed gait rehabilitation device. The device, called LOPES, combines a freely translatable and 2-D-actuated pelvis segment with a leg exoskeleton containing three actuated rotational joints: two at the hip and one at the knee. The joints are impedance controlled to allow bidirectional mechanical interaction between the robot and the training subject. Evaluation measurements show that the device allows both a "pa- tient-in-charge" and "robot-in-charge" mode, in which the robot is controlled either to follow or to guide a patient, respectively. Electromyography (EMG) measurements (one subject) on eight important leg muscles, show that free walking in the device strongly resembles free treadmill walking; an indication that the device can offer task-specific gait training. The possibilities and limitations to using the device as gait measurement tool are also shown at the moment position measurements are not accurate enough for inverse-dynamical gait analysis.
Original languageUndefined
Pages (from-to)379-386
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • IR-58121
  • METIS-240896

Cite this