Design, Calibration, and Evaluation of a Backpack Indoor Mobile Mapping System

S. Karam* (Corresponding Author), G. Vosselman, Michael Peter, S. Hosseinyalamdary, V.V. Lehtola

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)
148 Downloads (Pure)


Indoor mobile mapping systems are important for a wide range of applications starting from disaster management to straightforward indoor navigation. This paper presents the design and performance of a low-cost backpack indoor mobile mapping system (ITC-IMMS) that utilizes a combination of laser range-finders (LRFs) to fully recover the 3D building model based on a feature-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm. Specifically, we use robust planar features. These are advantageous, because oftentimes the final representation of the indoor environment is wanted in a planar form, and oftentimes the walls in an indoor environment physically have planar shapes. In order to understand the potential accuracy of our indoor models and to assess the system’s ability to capture the geometry of indoor environments, we develop novel evaluation techniques. In contrast to the state-of-the-art evaluation methods that rely on ground truth data, our evaluation methods can check the internal consistency of the reconstructed map in the absence of any ground truth data. Additionally, the external consistency can be verified with the often available as-planned state map of the building. The results demonstrate that our backpack system can capture the geometry of the test areas with angle errors typically below 1.5° and errors in wall thickness around 1 cm. An optimal configuration for the sensors is determined through a set of experiments that makes use of the developed evaluation techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Article number905
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalRemote sensing
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2019




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