Designing and Basic Experimental Validation of the World's First MW-Class Direct-Drive Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

Xiaowei Song*, Anne Bergen, Tiemo Winkler, Sander Wessel, Marcel ter Brake, Jurgen Kellers, Hendrik Putz, Markus Bauer, Hans Kyling, Hermann Boy, Eric Seitz, Carsten Buhrer, Patrick Brutsaert, Jens Krause, Aymen Ammar, Jan Wiezoreck, Jesper Hansen, Anders V. Rebsdorf, Marc Dhalle

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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High temperature superconducting (HTS) technologies are expected to be a key enabler for lightweight and cost-effective direct-drive (DD) trains for large wind turbines. This paper reports the designing and basic experimental validation of the world's first full-scale DD HTS generator demonstrated on a commercial wind turbine. The HTS generator has its rotor with an HTS field winding working below 30 K, which is achieved by using off-The-shelf Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. The stator of the generator is essentially conventional, except that the armature winding has four segments to limit fault torques in case of sudden short circuits due to converter failures. Compared to an existing DD permanent magnet generator on the turbine, the air gap shearing stress of the HTS generator is doubled, and the weight is reduced by 24%. The overall design requirements from the turbine integration perspective, as well as the topological considerations, are first described in this paper. The electromagnetic and cryogenic designs are then presented, followed by performance testing of HTS coils. The basic experimental validation shows that the cryogenic design is satisfactory and the measured no-load voltage matches the finite element calculation very well.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8764489
Pages (from-to)2218-2225
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2019


  • Direct-drive
  • electromagnetic
  • finite element
  • high temperature superconductor
  • wind turbine generator
  • 22/4 OA procedure


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