Detecting Hidden Information from Watermarked Signal using Granulation Based Fitness Approximation

Mohsen Davarynejad, Saeed Sedghi, Majid Bahrepour, Chang Wook Ahn, Mohammad-Reza Akbarzadeh, Carlos Artemio Coello Coello

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)
    114 Downloads (Pure)


    Spread spectrum audio watermarking (SSW) is one of the most secure techniques of audio watermarking. SSW hides information by spreading their spectrum which is called watermark and adds it to a host signal as a watermarked signal. Spreading spectrum is done by a pseudonoise (PN) sequence. In conventional SSW approaches, the receiver must know the PN sequence used at the transmitter as well as the location of the watermark in watermarked signal for detecting hidden information. This method is attributed high security features, since any unauthorized user who does not access this information cannot detect any hidden information. Detection of the PN sequence is the key factor for detection of hidden information from SSW. Although PN sequence detection is possible by using heuristic approaches such as evolutionary algorithms, due to the high computational cost of this task, such heuristic tends to become too expensive (computationally speaking), which can turn it impractical. Much of the computational complexity involved in the use of evolutionary algorithms as an optimization tool is due to the fitness function evaluation that may either be very difficult to define or be computationally very expensive. This paper proposes the use of fitness granulation to recover a PN sequence with a chip period equal to 63, 127, 255 bits. This is a new application of authors’ earlier work on adaptive fitness function approximation with fuzzy supervisory. With the proposed approach, the expensive fitness evaluation step is replaced by an approximate model. The approach is then compared with standard application of evolutionary algorithms; statistical analysis confirms that the proposed approach demonstrates an ability to reduce the computational complexity of the design problem without sacrificing performance.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationApplications of soft Computing
    Subtitle of host publicationFrom Theory to Praxis
    EditorsJörn Jörn Mehnen, Mario Köppen, Ashraf Saad, Ashutosh Tiwari
    Place of PublicationBerlin, Heidelberg
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-540-89619-7
    ISBN (Print)978-3-540-89618-0
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2008
    Event13th World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, WSC 2008 -
    Duration: 10 Nov 200828 Nov 2008
    Conference number: 13

    Publication series

    NameAdvances in Itelligent and Soft Computing
    ISSN (Print)1867-5662
    ISSN (Electronic)1867-5670


    Conference13th World Conference on Soft Computing in Industrial Applications, WSC 2008
    Abbreviated titleWSC


    • IR-67866
    • CR-I.2
    • EWI-16003
    • METIS-263995
    • Cross Correlation
    • Image Watermark
    • Spread Spectrum
    • Hide Information
    • Host Signal


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