Detecting positive selection in populations using genetic data

Angelos Koropoulis, Nikolaos Alachiotis, Pavlos Pavlidis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

High-throughput genomic sequencing allows to disentangle the evolutionary forces acting in populations. Among evolutionary forces, positive selection has received a lot of attention because it is related to the adaptation of populations in their environments, both biotic and abiotic. Positive selection, also known as Darwinian selection, occurs when an allele is favored by natural selection. The frequency of the favored allele increases in the population and, due to genetic hitchhiking, neighboring linked variation diminishes, creating so-called selective sweeps. Such a process leaves traces in genomes that can be detected in a future time point. Detecting traces of positive selection in genomes is achieved by searching for signatures introduced by selective sweeps, such as regions of reduced variation, a specific shift of the site frequency spectrum, and particular linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns in the region. A variety of approaches can be used for detecting selective sweeps, ranging from simple implementations that compute summary statistics to more advanced statistical approaches, e.g., Bayesian approaches, maximum-likelihood-based methods, and machine learning methods. In this chapter, we discuss selective sweep detection methodologies on the basis of their capacity to analyze whole genomes or just subgenomic regions, and on the specific polymorphism patterns they exploit as selective sweep signatures. We also summarize the results of comparisons among five open-source software releases (SweeD, SweepFinder, SweepFinder2, OmegaPlus, and RAiSD) regarding sensitivity, specificity, and execution times. Furthermore, we test and discuss machine learning methods and present a thorough performance analysis. In equilibrium neutral models or mild bottlenecks, most methods are able to detect selective sweeps accurately. Methods and tools that rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) rather than single SNPs exhibit higher true positive rates than the site frequency spectrum (SFS)-based methods under the model of a single sweep or recurrent hitchhiking. However, their false positive rate is elevated when a misspecified demographic model is used to build the distribution of the statistic under the null hypothesis. Both LD and SFS-based approaches suffer from decreased accuracy on localizing the true target of selection in bottleneck scenarios. Furthermore, we present an extensive analysis of the effects of gene flow on selective sweep detection, a problem that has been understudied in selective sweep literature.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
EditorsJulien Y. Dutheil
Place of Publication New York, NY
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Pages87-123
Number of pages37
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-0716-0199-0
ISBN (Print)978-1-0716-0198-3, 978-1-0716-0201-0
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana
Volume2090
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029

Keywords

  • Machine learning
  • Positive selection
  • Selective sweep
  • Software tools
  • Summary statistics

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