A stimulus-response method based on the application of a pH step is proposed for the detection of protein immobilized in a membrane on top of an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). The ISFET response to a step-wise change in pH, applied at the interface between the membrane and the surrounding solution, depends on the concentration of protein immobilized in the membrane because proton-dissociation reactions of the protein cause a delayed diffusion of protons and hydroxyl ions through the membrane. Our theoretical description shows that the delay in ISFET response is linearly related to the concentration of protein immobilized in the membrane. Experiments performed with lysozyme as a model protein show the feasibility of this detection principle.
- Ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET)
- pH-step titration