Determinants of Internet skills, use and outcomes: A systematic review of the second- and third-level digital divide

Anique Scheerder*, Alexander van Deursen, Jan van Dijk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

70 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internet access (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to a third-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use are highlighted. A plethora of studies have been conducted to identify determinants of digital divides. Unfortunately, there is a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Moreover, terms are often not theoretically grounded. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review of digital divide determinants. The results show that the third-level digital divide was underexposed. The primary focus is on Internet use. More importantly, the identified determinants show that digital divide research is largely limited to sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1607-1624
JournalTelematics and informatics
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017



  • Digital divide
  • Internet outcomes
  • Internet skills
  • Internet use
  • Systematic literature review

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