An accurate transmission measurement of thin foils (usually made of elemental metals and/or semiconductors), which routinely are used as attenuators in soft x-ray beamlines, end-stations and instruments, represents a long standing problem over the wide experimentation field with photon beams, see for example [1-4]. Such foils are also frequently utilized for blocking long wavelength emission, i.e., UV-Vis-IR radiation, from plasma and high order harmonic sources, whilst soft x-rays emitted from the source pass through the foil with only a slight attenuation. Despite the enormous amount of data available in the literature, e.g., Henke’s tables , measurements made on real foils often provide surprising results. In this study, a procedure based on the ablation imprints method is utilized for determination of soft x-ray filter transmission, namely the f-scan technique [6,7]. This technique combines the GMD (Gas Monitor Detector) pulse energy measurement and attenuation of the beam by foils (made of different metallic/semiconducting elements of varying thickness) with areas of ablation imprints created on a suitable target, e.g. PMMA – Poly(methyl methacrylate). The results show only a partial overlap with transmission values found in Henke’s tables. Nevertheless, a good agreement with transmission values determined by conventional radiometry techniques at synchrotron radiation beamlines has been found. Such a difference between the experimentally obtained values and transmissions calculated for a pure element is usually explained by spontaneous formation of oxidized layers on the filter surface and in the near-surface layer and their possible alteration by intense FEL radiation. The first results obtained with Al, Nb, Zr and Si filters at FLASH/FLASH2 (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg tuned to 13.5 nm) facilities will be shown and discussed in this presentation.
|Name||SPIE conference proceedings|
|Conference||SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics 2019|
|Abbreviated title||SPIE EOO 2019|
|Period||4/01/19 → 4/03/19|