Development of a dedicated 3D printed myocardial perfusion phantom: proof-of-concept in dynamic SPECT

Marije E. Kamphuis*, Gijs J. de Vries, Henny Kuipers, Marloes Saaltink, Jacqueline Verschoor, Marcel J.W. Greuter, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Cornelis H. Slump

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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We aim to facilitate phantom-based (ground truth) evaluation of dynamic, quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) applications. Current MPI phantoms are static representations or lack clinical hard- and software evaluation capabilities. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the design, realisation and testing of a dedicated cardiac flow phantom. The 3D printed phantom mimics flow through a left ventricular cavity (LVC) and three myocardial segments. In the accompanying fluid circuit, tap water is pumped through the LVC and thereafter partially directed to the segments using adjustable resistances. Regulation hereof mimics perfusion deficit, whereby flow sensors serve as reference standard. Seven phantom measurements were performed while varying injected activity of 99mTc-tetrofosmin (330–550 MBq), cardiac output (1.5–3.0 L/min) and myocardial segmental flows (50–150 mL/min). Image data from dynamic single photon emission computed tomography was analysed with clinical software. Derived time activity curves were reproducible, showing logical trends regarding selected input variables. A promising correlation was found between software computed myocardial flows and its reference (ρ= − 0.98; p = 0.003). This proof-of-concept paper demonstrates we have successfully measured first-pass LV flow and myocardial perfusion in SPECT-MPI using a novel, dedicated, myocardial perfusion phantom. Graphical abstract: This proof-of-concept study focuses on the development of a novel, dedicated myocardial perfusion phantom, ultimately aiming to contribute to the evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1541-1550
Number of pages10
JournalMedical & biological engineering & computing
Issue number6
Early online date19 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • 3D printing
  • Myocardial perfusion imaging
  • Perfusion/flow phantom
  • Reference experiments
  • UT-Hybrid-D


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