Development of a dynamic myocardial perfusion phantom model for tracer kinetic measurements

Marije E. Kamphuis*, Henny Kuipers, Jacqueline Verschoor, Johannes C.G. van Hespen, Marcel J.W. Greuter, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Cornelis H. Slump

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Absolute myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is beneficial in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. However, validation and standardization of perfusion estimates across centers is needed to ensure safe and adequate integration into the clinical workflow. Physical myocardial perfusion models can contribute to this clinical need as these can provide ground-truth validation of perfusion estimates in a simplified, though controlled setup. This work presents the design and realization of such a myocardial perfusion phantom and highlights initial performance testing of the overall phantom setup using dynamic single photon emission computed tomography. Results: Due to anatomical and (patho-)physiological representation in the 3D printed myocardial perfusion phantom, we were able to acquire 22 dynamic MPI datasets in which 99mTc-labelled tracer kinetics was measured and analyzed using clinical MPI software. After phantom setup optimization, time activity curve analysis was executed for measurements with normal myocardial perfusion settings (1.5 mL/g/min) and with settings containing a regional or global perfusion deficit (0.8 mL/g/min). In these measurements, a specific amount of activated carbon was used to adsorb radiotracer in the simulated myocardial tissue. Such mimicking of myocardial tracer uptake and retention over time satisfactorily matched patient tracer kinetics. For normal perfusion levels, the absolute mean error between computed myocardial blood flow and ground-truth flow settings ranged between 0.1 and 0.4 mL/g/min. Conclusion: The presented myocardial perfusion phantom is a first step toward ground-truth validation of multimodal, absolute MPI applications in the clinical setting. Its dedicated and 3D printed design enables tracer kinetic measurement, including time activity curve and potentially compartmental myocardial blood flow analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number31
JournalEJNMMI physics
Issue number1
Early online date25 Apr 2022
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Ground truth
  • Myocardium
  • Perfusion
  • Phantom model
  • Quantitative imaging
  • Tracer kinetics


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a dynamic myocardial perfusion phantom model for tracer kinetic measurements'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this