This chapter updates Chapter 6 of Volume 1 and reviews the testing methods used for characterizing the breakdown of capacitors with special emphasis on MOS capacitors. The mechanism of breakdown is described by the “Qbd model” or “charge-to-breakdown model”, based on the continuous degradation and eventual breakdown caused by charge leaking through the capacitor. This is explained briefly and the degradation of the stressed capacitors is discussed in more detail. The main proof of the Qbd model is found by comparing the different testing methods and showing that all the statistical results merge into the same Qbd distribution law. Apparent differences in various test results are caused by obvious effects such as current confinement and local breakdown. The impact of this unifying model, the physical meaning of Qbd and ζbd and the correlation of the two are studied. Recent literature on other models is briefly discussed.
|Name||Instabilities in Silicon Devices|