Differentiation in EU Foreign, Security, and Defence Policy: Between Coherence and Flexibility

Ramses A. Wessel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This chapter analyses the variations in foreign, security, and defence policy as well as the consequences of a possible fragmentation on the positioning of the Union as a united global force. Since 'security and defence policy' is separated from 'foreign and security policy', one of the key questions concerns the dividing line between the two areas. Is it possible for Member States not to participate in the security and defence integration or does the single legal order of the Union prevents this variation? A second question concerns the more general possibilities for closer or enhanced cooperation. And, finally, a third question is to what extent the proposed new EU Constitutional Treaty further consolidates the somewhat fragmented legal regime on differentiation in the area of foreign, security, and defence policy.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Security Law
EditorsMartin Trybus, Nigel D. White
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780191696114
ISBN (Print)9780199218622
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2012


  • Defence policy
  • EU constitutional treaty
  • Foreign policy
  • Security policy

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