This study looks at different forms of direct and indirect employee participation in the EU. The research questions are: (1) which forms of direct and indirect employee participation can we distinguish?; (2) to what extent do forms of direct and indirect employee participation coincide within organisations?; and (3) to what extent are forms of direct and indirect employee participation associated with (a) workplace wellbeing and (b) the (economic) performance of the organisation? Using the ECS-2013 we analyse data from 24,251 establishments in the 28 EU Member States. Latent class analyses distinguished four types of indirect employee participation and five types of direct employee participation that vary in the extent to which participation is being facilitated. We found little support for the hypothesis that direct employee participation is deployed to replace indirect employee participation: establishments most commonly combine direct and indirect forms of employee participation. Multilevel analyses showed that more extensive forms of direct and indirect employee participation are associated with beneficial outcomes for the organisation (performance) and their employees (workplace wellbeing).
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Tijdschrift voor arbeidsvraagstukken|
|Publication status||Published - 2016|