Material-free tissues are assembled using solely cells. Microstructured hydrogel templates and high content screening allow the formation of centimeter-scale tissues with precise architectures. Similar to developing tissues, these contract autonomously, controllably shift shape, self-scaffold by secreting extracellular matrix, and undergo morphogenesis.
Vrij, E., Rouwkema, J., LaPointe, V., van Blitterswijk, C., Truckenmüller, R. K., & Rivron, N. C. (2016). Directed Assembly and Development of Material-Free Tissues with Complex Architectures. Advanced materials, 28(21), 4032-4039. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201505723