Directed energy deposition and characterization of high-carbon high speed steels

N. Ur Rahman*, L. Capuano, S. Cabeza, M. Feinaeugle, A. Garcia-Junceda, M. B. de Rooij, D.T.A. Matthews, G. Walmag, I. Gibson, G.R.B.E. Römer

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    Directed energy deposition (DED) of two high-carbon high speed steel alloys Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx was performed by using a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser source. The purpose of additive manufacturing was design and evaluation of thermally stable – high temperature wear resistant alloys. High temperature (500 °C) pin-on-disc tests were conducted to investigate the effect of carbides phase fraction on friction and wear. Strain scanning of the powder and additively manufactured materials was carried out by Neutron diffraction. Microstructures of both alloys consisted of a martensitic matrix with networks of primary and eutectic carbides. Micro-hardness (0.5 HV) measurement of all multilayer laser deposits, showed a micro-hardness greater than 700 HV, with no detrimental effect of repetitive laser thermal cycling. Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx showed a better high temperature wear resistance due to greater phase fraction of VC and Mo2C carbides. Fracture surfaces of post-heat treated tensile samples of Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx revealed brittle failures with minimal plasticity. Neutron strain mapping of the metal powders and the additively manufactured materials resulted in a weak diffraction signal and peak widening effect. These results could be explained either by an effect of strong crystallographic texture in the bulk or by the presence of nano- or semi-crystalline phases.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number100838
    JournalAddItive manufacturing
    Volume30
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

    Fingerprint

    Steel
    Carbides
    Carbon
    Microhardness
    Lasers
    3D printers
    Wear of materials
    Powder metals
    Alloy steel
    Thermal cycling
    Neutron diffraction
    Powders
    Temperature
    Eutectics
    Wear resistance
    Plasticity
    Multilayers
    Neutrons
    Deposits
    Textures

    Keywords

    • Additive manufacturing
    • Crystallographic texture
    • High-carbon high speed steel
    • In-situ oxidation
    • Inter-granular cracking
    • Neutron diffraction
    • Strain mapping

    Cite this

    @article{281a86cc17ab47fc804c5ef0a4b916b9,
    title = "Directed energy deposition and characterization of high-carbon high speed steels",
    abstract = "Directed energy deposition (DED) of two high-carbon high speed steel alloys Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx was performed by using a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser source. The purpose of additive manufacturing was design and evaluation of thermally stable – high temperature wear resistant alloys. High temperature (500 °C) pin-on-disc tests were conducted to investigate the effect of carbides phase fraction on friction and wear. Strain scanning of the powder and additively manufactured materials was carried out by Neutron diffraction. Microstructures of both alloys consisted of a martensitic matrix with networks of primary and eutectic carbides. Micro-hardness (0.5 HV) measurement of all multilayer laser deposits, showed a micro-hardness greater than 700 HV, with no detrimental effect of repetitive laser thermal cycling. Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx showed a better high temperature wear resistance due to greater phase fraction of VC and Mo2C carbides. Fracture surfaces of post-heat treated tensile samples of Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx revealed brittle failures with minimal plasticity. Neutron strain mapping of the metal powders and the additively manufactured materials resulted in a weak diffraction signal and peak widening effect. These results could be explained either by an effect of strong crystallographic texture in the bulk or by the presence of nano- or semi-crystalline phases.",
    keywords = "Additive manufacturing, Crystallographic texture, High-carbon high speed steel, In-situ oxidation, Inter-granular cracking, Neutron diffraction, Strain mapping",
    author = "{Ur Rahman}, N. and L. Capuano and S. Cabeza and M. Feinaeugle and A. Garcia-Junceda and {de Rooij}, {M. B.} and D.T.A. Matthews and G. Walmag and I. Gibson and G.R.B.E. R{\"o}mer",
    year = "2019",
    month = "12",
    day = "1",
    doi = "10.1016/j.addma.2019.100838",
    language = "English",
    volume = "30",
    journal = "AddItive manufacturing",
    issn = "2214-8604",
    publisher = "Elsevier",

    }

    Directed energy deposition and characterization of high-carbon high speed steels. / Ur Rahman, N.; Capuano, L.; Cabeza, S.; Feinaeugle, M.; Garcia-Junceda, A.; de Rooij, M. B.; Matthews, D.T.A.; Walmag, G.; Gibson, I.; Römer, G.R.B.E.

    In: AddItive manufacturing, Vol. 30, 100838, 01.12.2019.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Directed energy deposition and characterization of high-carbon high speed steels

    AU - Ur Rahman, N.

    AU - Capuano, L.

    AU - Cabeza, S.

    AU - Feinaeugle, M.

    AU - Garcia-Junceda, A.

    AU - de Rooij, M. B.

    AU - Matthews, D.T.A.

    AU - Walmag, G.

    AU - Gibson, I.

    AU - Römer, G.R.B.E.

    PY - 2019/12/1

    Y1 - 2019/12/1

    N2 - Directed energy deposition (DED) of two high-carbon high speed steel alloys Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx was performed by using a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser source. The purpose of additive manufacturing was design and evaluation of thermally stable – high temperature wear resistant alloys. High temperature (500 °C) pin-on-disc tests were conducted to investigate the effect of carbides phase fraction on friction and wear. Strain scanning of the powder and additively manufactured materials was carried out by Neutron diffraction. Microstructures of both alloys consisted of a martensitic matrix with networks of primary and eutectic carbides. Micro-hardness (0.5 HV) measurement of all multilayer laser deposits, showed a micro-hardness greater than 700 HV, with no detrimental effect of repetitive laser thermal cycling. Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx showed a better high temperature wear resistance due to greater phase fraction of VC and Mo2C carbides. Fracture surfaces of post-heat treated tensile samples of Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx revealed brittle failures with minimal plasticity. Neutron strain mapping of the metal powders and the additively manufactured materials resulted in a weak diffraction signal and peak widening effect. These results could be explained either by an effect of strong crystallographic texture in the bulk or by the presence of nano- or semi-crystalline phases.

    AB - Directed energy deposition (DED) of two high-carbon high speed steel alloys Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx was performed by using a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser source. The purpose of additive manufacturing was design and evaluation of thermally stable – high temperature wear resistant alloys. High temperature (500 °C) pin-on-disc tests were conducted to investigate the effect of carbides phase fraction on friction and wear. Strain scanning of the powder and additively manufactured materials was carried out by Neutron diffraction. Microstructures of both alloys consisted of a martensitic matrix with networks of primary and eutectic carbides. Micro-hardness (0.5 HV) measurement of all multilayer laser deposits, showed a micro-hardness greater than 700 HV, with no detrimental effect of repetitive laser thermal cycling. Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx showed a better high temperature wear resistance due to greater phase fraction of VC and Mo2C carbides. Fracture surfaces of post-heat treated tensile samples of Febal-C-Cr-Mo-V and Febal−x-C-Cr-Mo-V-Wx revealed brittle failures with minimal plasticity. Neutron strain mapping of the metal powders and the additively manufactured materials resulted in a weak diffraction signal and peak widening effect. These results could be explained either by an effect of strong crystallographic texture in the bulk or by the presence of nano- or semi-crystalline phases.

    KW - Additive manufacturing

    KW - Crystallographic texture

    KW - High-carbon high speed steel

    KW - In-situ oxidation

    KW - Inter-granular cracking

    KW - Neutron diffraction

    KW - Strain mapping

    U2 - 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100838

    DO - 10.1016/j.addma.2019.100838

    M3 - Article

    AN - SCOPUS:85072705008

    VL - 30

    JO - AddItive manufacturing

    JF - AddItive manufacturing

    SN - 2214-8604

    M1 - 100838

    ER -