Doping of semiconductors by molecular monolayers: monolayer formation, dopant diffusion and applications

Liang Ye, Machiel Pieter de Jong, Tibor Kudernac, Wilfred G. van der Wiel, Jurriaan Huskens*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
40 Downloads (Pure)


The continuous miniaturization in the semiconductor industry brings electronic devices with higher performance at lower cost. The doping of semiconductor materials plays a crucial role in tuning the electrical properties of the materials. Ion implantation is currently widely used. Yet, this technique faces challenges meeting the requirements for smaller devices. Monolayer doping (MLD) has been proposed as one of the alternative techniques for doping semiconductors. It utilizes dopant-containing organic molecules and grafts them onto semiconductor surfaces. The dopant atoms are subsequently driven into the substrate by high temperature annealing. MLD has shown the capability for ultra-shallow doping and the doping of 3-D structures without causing crystal damage. These features make this technique a promising candidate to dope future electronic devices. In this review the processes for monolayer formation and dopant incorporation by annealing will be discussed, as well as the applications of MLD in device fabrication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)128-134
Number of pages7
JournalMaterials science in semiconductor processing
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • Dopant
  • Germanium
  • Group III-V semiconductors
  • Monolayer doping
  • Silicon
  • Transistor
  • 2023 OA procedure


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