We developed and evaluated a new kinematic driver for musculoskeletal models using ambulatory inertial and magnetic measurement units (IMMUs). The new driver uses the orientation estimates based on sensor fusion of each individual IMMU and benefits from two important properties of musculoskeletal models. First, these models contain more complex, anatomical, kinematic models than those currently used for sensor fusion of multiple IMMUs and are continuously improved. Second, they allow movement between segment and measured sensor. For three different tasks, the new IMMU driver, (optical) marker drivers and a combination of both were used to reconstruct the motion. Maximal root mean square (RMS) joint angle differences with respect to the silver standard (combined IMMU/marker drivers) were found for the hip joint; 4°, 2° and 5° during squat, gait and slideboard tasks for IMMU-driven reconstructions, compared with 6°, 5° and 5° for marker-driven reconstructions, respectively. The measured angular velocities corresponded best to the IMMU-driven reconstructions, with a maximal RMS difference of 66°/s, compared with 108°/s and 91°/s for marker-driven reconstructions and silver standard. However, large oscillations in global accelerations occurred during IMMU-driven reconstructions resulting in a maximal RMS difference with respect to measured acceleration of 23 m/s2, compared with 9 m/s2 for reconstructions that included marker drivers. The new driver facilitates direct implementation of IMMU-based orientation estimates in currently available biomechanical models. As such, it can help in the rapid expansion of biomechanical analysis based on outdoor measurements.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 17 Dec 2015|